Sixth Epoch: 1963-1973 18,000 Nuclear Bombs, a Test ban and Limited Wars.

The Cuban Missile crisis taught the US and USSR to back away from a total nuclear confrontation form of cold war. Thereafter limited regional conventional conflicts became the accepted engagement practice, with ICBMs being the fist behind the shield. Large bomber fleets were no longer needed. However the employment of the tactical theater nuclear weapons (smaller yield) was increased. US Atomic Test detonations in the South Pacific Ocean in the earth s upper atmosphere confirmed that massive damage could be done to the earth s biosphere by nuclear blasts. The USSR confirmed these results with like tests shortly thereafter. Together the USA and the USSR came to a number of nuclear arms limitations agreements. Bomber fleets were reduced, nuclear war-head productions were decreased, and atmospheric atomic blasts were outlawed. The need for flight navigators and bombardiers was evermore decreasing. At the same time in order to aid the US Navy navigation of its nuclear subs a satellite based navigation system was put in to orbit. Navstar satellites were the foundation of what we now know as the Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) system. Cold War aerial spying capabilities went for the greatest part up to the satellites. The US developed some 12 airplanes during this period and an ever evolving fleet of long range intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs): all with nuclear war heads.

Navigator developments in this period:

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